There’s no such thing as a “medical bankruptcy”. Even though you’re filing a bankruptcy case to get rid of overwhelming medical debt, you won’t be able to limit the case to just outstanding medical bills. The bankruptcy laws are designed to be as fair as possible to the debtor (the person who files the bankruptcy case) and to the creditors. Medical debt is considered the same as credit card debt, old utility bills, personal loans, and money you’ve borrowed from friends and family. These are all similar enough that the bankruptcy code treats them the same way.
Many people owe money directly to doctors, laboratories, hospitals, out-patient surgery centers, dentists, and other medical providers. Other people use credit cards to pay their medical care providers, and in that way rack up huge amounts of credit card debt.
Debts owed to medical providers and credit card debt are classified as unsecured debt. This means that the debtor has not pledged a piece of property (such as a house or car) as collateral for payment of the debt.