Non-Compete Agreements: What You Need to Know Before You Sign

Imagine landing your dream job, but there’s a catch: you have to sign a non-compete agreement. Non compete agreements: here’s what you need to know. It’s crucial to understand the implications of these agreements and how they can impact your...

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Imagine landing your dream job, but there’s a catch: you have to sign a non-compete agreement. Non compete agreements: here’s what you need to know. It’s crucial to understand the implications of these agreements and how they can impact your career. This blog post will guide you through the complexities of non-compete agreements, their legal enforceability, and how to negotiate and challenge them, arming you with the knowledge needed to protect your interests and future career opportunities.

Key Takeaways

  • Non-compete agreements protect employers from potential harm caused by former employees, with the enforceability of such contracts determined by state jurisdiction.
  • Employees should be aware of their rights and consult an employment attorney to understand and negotiate non-compete agreements, as well as challenge unreasonable terms in order to protect their career prospects.
  • The proposed ban on non compete clauses could potentially raise wages for up to one fifth of American workers by increasing job mobility and negotiating power.

Understanding Non-Compete Agreements

Non-compete agreements are contracts that restrict employees from working for competitors or starting a similar business after leaving their current employer. Their purpose is to safeguard trade secrets and intellectual property, even though they may occasionally impose unfair limitations on worker mobility and impede career progression. The main elements of non-compete agreements—duration, geographic scope, and restricted activities—should be clearly communicated to workers by employers before the contract is signed.

During the pandemic, the validity of non-compete agreements has been called into question by some workers, leading federal courts to scrutinize them more carefully. Instances have arisen where the Federal Trade Commission Act has been invoked to dispute non-compete agreements thought to be excessively restrictive or anti-competitive.

Definition and Purpose

A non-compete agreement is a legal contract or clause that prohibits an employee from engaging in competition with their employer during or after their employment. The primary purpose of non-compete agreements is to safeguard:

  • Trade secrets
  • Intellectual property
  • Confidential or sensitive information
  • Client lists
  • Customer lists
  • Pricing lists
  • Investment in worker training

These agreements serve as a legal tool to protect employers from potential harm caused by former employees who might use their knowledge and skills to benefit competitors or start their own businesses. Nevertheless, other options like the Uniform Trade Secrets Act and the Economic Espionage Act can shield companies against unauthorized usage or misappropriation of their protected trade secrets.

Employer’s Perspective

Employers use non-compete agreements to safeguard their competitive advantage and prevent ex-employees from using acquired knowledge to benefit competitors or start their own businesses. However, non-compete agreements have been observed to decrease the number of available workers, making it more difficult for businesses to expand and contributing to wage stagnation.

Common justifications provided by employers for necessitating non-compete agreements include:

  • Preserving intellectual property
  • Securing trade secrets
  • Hindering employees from taking valuable knowledge to competitors
  • Upholding a competitive advantage in the market
  • Increasing the value of the company for potential sale

Despite these justifications, it’s essential for employees to understand their rights and the implications of signing a non-compete agreement.

State Laws and Enforceability

Are Non-Compete Agreements Enforceable in Arkansas?

The laws in the US concerning non-compete agreements differ, with some states prohibiting them altogether and others placing limits on their enforceability. The legal status of non-compete agreements in the United States is a matter of state jurisdiction, with some states banning them outright and others imposing restrictions on their enforceability. For example:

  • California
  • Minnesota
  • North Dakota
  • Oklahoma

These states entirely forbid non-compete agreements.

In states that do not forbid non-compete agreements entirely, particular regulations are in effect. Some states, such as:

  • Colorado
  • Illinois
  • Maine
  • Maryland
  • New Hampshire
  • Oregon
  • Rhode Island
  • Virginia
  • Washington

Disallow non-compete agreements except when certain conditions are satisfied. Additionally, other states may have limits on the length or geographic area of non-compete agreements. Understanding the regulations on non-compete agreements requires a careful study of each state’s specific laws.

Banned or Restricted States

Some states have prohibited or limited non-compete agreements, while others enforce them based on factors such as reasonableness and necessity. California, for instance, prohibits non-compete agreements, save for exceedingly limited circumstances. On June 20, 2023, the New York State Legislature passed a bill which, if signed into law by Governor Hochul, would effectively ban almost all non-compete agreements for workers, irrespective of their salary or position.

North Dakota places stringent restrictions on non-compete agreements to safeguard employees and encourage a more competitive job market by limiting the enforceability of such agreements. Similarly, Oklahoma generally considers non-compete agreements unenforceable, with a few exceptions.

Factors Affecting Enforceability

Courts consider factors like duration, geographic scope, and the nature of the restricted activities when determining the enforceability of non-compete agreements. The geographical scope of a non-compete agreement is a fundamental component in assessing its enforceability. Courts will evaluate whether the scope is reasonable and essential to safeguard the employer’s legitimate business interests.

Non-compete agreements that are generally considered to be unenforceable by a court include:

  • Clauses that impose excessive restrictions on the employee’s capacity to work in the same sector or regional area
  • Agreements that entirely prohibit the employee from engaging in any competitive activities
  • Non-disclosure agreements that are so broad that they effectively impede the employee from obtaining employment in their field

In certain industries, such as professional services and finance, the enforceability of non-compete agreements is more stringent.

Key Components of Non-Compete Agreements

Non-compete agreements typically include clauses specifying the duration of the restriction, the geographic area it covers, and the activities that are prohibited. The duration of a non-compete agreement is generally between six months and two years, although it may vary depending on the industry and state regulations.

The geographic scope in non-compete agreements is usually defined by a radius or specific cities, ensuring the restrictions are reasonable and not overly broad. Restricted activities in non-compete agreements should be specific and related to the employee’s role, preventing them from working in a similar capacity for a competitor.


The duration of non-compete agreements varies, with typical periods ranging from 6 months to 2 years, depending on the industry and state laws. Generally, the duration of a non-compete agreement is considered reasonable when it falls within a six-month to two-year time frame.

The exact duration may be contingent upon the industry and the particular circumstances of the agreement. A thorough review of the agreement’s terms is necessary before signing.

Geographic Scope

Geographic scope in non-compete agreements is typically delineated by a radius or particular cities, guaranteeing that the stipulations are sensible and not excessively wide-ranging. Courts evaluate the reasonableness of overly broad geographic limitations in non-compete agreements by determining whether the scope is necessary to safeguard the legitimate business interests of the employer.

Without specifying the geographic scope, the agreement may not be legally binding. Employees need to grasp the implications of the geographic scope in their non-compete agreement and should seek advice from an employment attorney if they have doubts about its enforceability.

Restricted Activities

Restricted activities in non-compete agreements generally include:

  • Working for a competing employer
  • Founding a competing business
  • Soliciting clients from the former employer
  • Utilizing trade secrets
  • Recruiting employees from the former employer
  • Engaging in activities that directly compete with the former employer’s products or services.

Employees should carefully review the list of restricted activities in their non-compete agreement and consider consulting an employment attorney if they believe the restrictions are unreasonable or overly broad.

Negotiating and Challenging Non-Compete Agreements

consulting, information, conversation

Employees should consult an attorney, know their rights, and challenge unreasonable non-compete agreements to protect their interests and future career opportunities. Under a non-compete agreement, an employee is typically entitled to:

  • Be informed of the terms and conditions of the agreement
  • Negotiate the terms
  • Receive consideration
  • Dispute enforceability
  • Obtain legal advice

An employee can challenge an unreasonable non-compete agreement by demonstrating that the terms of the contract are too expansive, such as if the non-compete clause persists for an unreasonable duration or restricts the employee from engaging in employment in an overly large geographic area. It is essential to review prior cases decided in the relevant state to assess what judges have deemed reasonable and what types of non-compete agreements have been challenged successfully.

Consult an Employment Attorney

Consulting an employment attorney can help employees in the following ways:

  • Understand the implications of non-compete agreements
  • Understand their rights under state laws and their employment contract
  • Receive assistance in understanding and interpreting non-compete agreements
  • Have the terms of the agreement reviewed
  • Receive guidance on the legal implications of the agreement

They have expertise in interpreting and applying non-compete agreements and can help navigate the complexities of the agreement to ensure your rights are protected. Furthermore, an employment attorney can assist in negotiating the terms of the agreement and provide counsel on whether the agreement is enforceable under the applicable laws.

Know Your Rights

Employees should be aware of their rights and the enforceability of non-compete agreements in their state, allowing them to negotiate better terms if necessary. Certain states have completely prohibited non-compete agreements, such as California, Minnesota, North Dakota, and Oklahoma, while others have implemented regulations on the utilization of non-compete agreements, setting restrictions on their duration, geographic extent, and the kinds of employees who can be subject to them.

It is imperative for employees to be cognizant of the precise laws in their state to comprehend their rights and safeguards when it comes to non-compete agreements. Employees may access resources to comprehend their rights regarding non-compete agreements from a variety of sources, including Thomson Reuters, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), and Block Pittsburgh.

Challenging Unreasonable Agreements

Contesting unreasonable non-compete agreements in court can aid employees in protecting their career prospects and avoiding unwarranted restrictions. Legal grounds for contesting a non-compete agreement include:

  • Unreasonable terms
  • Absence of a protectable interest
  • Illegal or unethical behavior by the employer
  • Insufficient consideration

It is of great importance to consult an employment attorney when negotiating or challenging a non-compete agreement, as they can offer advice on the enforceability of the agreement and guarantee the protection of the employee’s rights. By understanding their rights and challenging unreasonable agreements, employees can ensure that they are not unfairly restricted in their career growth and job mobility.

Non-Compete vs. Non-Disclosure Agreements

Non-compete and non-disclosure agreements serve different purposes, with non-competes restricting employees from working for competitors and non-disclosures preventing the disclosure of confidential information. Non-compete agreements stipulate that employees are prohibited from working for competitors or initiating a similar business for a predetermined period following their departure from their current employer. On the other hand, non-disclosure agreements mandate that employees abstain from disclosing proprietary or confidential information.

While non-compete agreements focus on preventing employees from directly competing with their former employers, non-disclosure agreements are designed to protect sensitive information from being shared with unauthorized parties. Both types of agreements are commonly used in employment contracts to protect employers’ interests and maintain a competitive edge in the marketplace.

Non-Compete Agreements

Non-compete agreements:

  • Prohibit employees from working for competitors or starting a similar business for a specified non compete period after leaving their current employer
  • Designed to deter employees from working for competing companies during or after their employment
  • Act as a tool for employers to protect their business interests and prevent unfair competition.

By limiting competition, non-compete agreements serve several important purposes:

  • Safeguard the legitimate interests of a business
  • Prevent unfair competition
  • Preserve trade secrets, intellectual property, and confidential information
  • Protect the methods used to produce goods or services

Non-Disclosure Agreements

Non-disclosure agreements (NDAs) focus on protecting confidential information by preventing employees from sharing it with unauthorized parties. Typically, a non disclosure agreement includes elements such as:

  • A description of the confidential information
  • Identification of the parties involved
  • Obligations and requirements of the parties
  • Exclusions or limitations on what is considered confidential
  • The duration or time period of the agreement

NDAs are frequently utilized in various business scenarios, including:

  • Business negotiations
  • Safeguarding confidential information
  • Exhibiting inventions or business ideas
  • Disclosing sensitive information
  • Guaranteeing confidentiality in commercial agreements

By establishing a legally binding agreement between parties, NDAs ensure that sensitive information shared between them remains confidential and protected from disclosure to third parties.

Katie’s Story

When Katie received a tempting job offer, she noticed it included a 2-year non-compete agreement banning her from working for any competitors. Hesitant to sign without understanding the implications, Katie scheduled an appointment with labor lawyer Chris Burks at our WH Law headquarters in North Little Rock, AR.

Katie explained her situation and concerns over limiting her career options with the broad non-compete clause. She asked Chris if it seemed reasonable and whether she was obligated to sign it.

Chris confirmed that the duration and scope of Katie’s proposed agreement exceeded what Arkansas courts generally enforce. He explained she had the right to try negotiating or rejecting unreasonable restrictions. However, without the non-compete, the employer could rescind their offer.

As Katie described her passion for the work and potential to grow with this firm, Chris suggested a compromise – proposing shorter, narrower non-compete terms to the employer. If they insisted on the full 2 years, Katie could sign but likely challenge the agreement later if needed.

Our team also recommended Katie negotiate continued pay during the non-compete period in exchange for her agreement. Overall, Chris counseled Katie to make the best decision for her career goals and future opportunities.

Should I have an attorney review my employment contract?

Impact of Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Actions

The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has proposed a ban on non-compete clauses, which could impact worker mobility and wages for millions of American workers. Announced on January 5, 2023, the proposed ban is intended to boost competition and worker mobility by eliminating constraints on employees’ capacity to change jobs and negotiate improved terms.

If implemented, the ban could potentially raise wages for one in five American workers by removing restrictions on their ability to switch jobs and negotiate better terms. Estimates by the FTC indicate that the ban could augment workers’ earnings across industries and job levels by $250 billion to $296 billion.

Proposed Ban

The FTC’s proposed ban on non-compete clauses, announced on January 5, 2023, aims to increase competition and worker mobility. The ban is based on the belief that non-compete clauses impede employees’ ability to transition to different positions, thus depriving them of higher wages and improved working conditions.

Additionally, the FTC holds that non-compete clauses impede competition and hinder companies from accessing the talent needed for growth and innovation. If enacted, the ban could have significant ramifications for employers and employees alike, potentially increasing wages and job mobility for millions of American workers.

Worker Mobility and Wages

Increased worker mobility resulting from the proposed ban on non-compete clauses could unfairly limit worker mobility by:

  • Enabling employees to transition between jobs without fear of legal consequences
  • Providing them with enhanced job prospects and bargaining power
  • Resulting in higher wages and improved working conditions for American workers
  • Giving workers greater flexibility to change jobs and negotiate improved terms in their existing roles


In conclusion, understanding the intricacies of non-compete agreements is crucial to protecting your career and future employment opportunities. By being aware of your rights, consulting with an employment attorney, and challenging unreasonable agreements, you can ensure fair treatment and maximize your job mobility. As the proposed ban on non-compete clauses continues to develop, it’s essential to stay informed and adapt to the changing legal landscape, empowering you to make the best decisions for your career.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are some important facts to include in the non-compete agreement?

In a typical non-compete agreement, the employee is barred from working for a competing company in the same industry for a specified amount of time in a certain geographical location. Furthermore, restrictions should be included regarding specified competitors.

Should I be worried about a non-compete agreement?

Given the limited circumstances in which non-compete agreements are typically enforced, you should not be concerned unless one of the aforementioned conditions applies to you.

What makes a non-compete null and void?

Non-competes can be invalidated if the time period is too long (over 2 years), or if the employer made a promise to the employee in exchange for signing the agreement but did not intend to fulfill it.

Will non-compete agreements be banned in 2023?

Based on the FTC’s January 2023 announcement of a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking that would ban all non-compete clauses in employer-employee contracts, it appears that non-compete agreements will be banned in 2023.

What rights do employees have in Arkansas?

Employees in Arkansas have the right to overtime work being paid at a rate no lower than 1.5 times their regular pay rate for any additional hours worked beyond 40 in a workweek, as outlined by the Fair Labor Standards Act.

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